Posts from ‘Ask INE’


Keith Bogart is one of INE’s most esteemed and experienced instructors. Keith has been with INE for 4 years designing and instructing videos and bootcamps, as well as hosting live web-series, designing workbooks, and contributing to our IEOC Forum and INE Blog. Keith has a CCNA in Routing and Switching, CCIE in Dial-ISP, CWNA and is currently working towards his CCNA Security certification.

Before he was with INE, Keith worked as a service representative, technical assistance engineer and network consulting engineer at Cisco Systems. After 17 years at Cisco and a short time with a small start-up, Keith brought his talents to INE and became our #1 CCNA Routing & Switching instructor.

So what has Keith been up to?

On a typical day you can find Keith in our North Carolina office working on his latest project – a new CCNA Security Bootcamp. This bootcamp is still in its early stages of design, however, according to Keith, it’s shaping up to be a 5-day Bootcamp that will be offered online at least twice in the first half of 2019.


Did you know it’s our birthday? 15 years ago, INE officially opened its doors and became your #1 trusted training partner. However, we didn’t experience overnight success, we’ve worked hard to earn our place in the IT training community. Take a quick look at how we’ve grown over the years.

We’re so grateful for all of our loyal customers, we certainly wouldn’t be where we are today without your feedback and support. Help us celebrate by telling us how INE has helped you succeed here, and receive a gift card for a free t-shirt!



You may recall that, when using Named-Mode EIGRP configuration you have automatic access to EIGRP Wide Metrics.  In addition to providing you a new K-Value (K6 which is used against Jitter and Energy) the EIGRP Distance formula has been revised (what they call, “scaled”) to account for links above-and-beyond 10Gbps.  Remember that with Classic-Mode EIGRP, the formula looked like this:

metric = ([K1 * bandwidth + (K2 * bandwidth) / (256 - load) + K3 * delay] * [K5 / (reliability + K4)]) * 256

In the formula, the “**bandwidth**” value was represented as:

BW = 10^7 / minimum BW


In the formula above, the “minimum BW” was represented as Kbps. The problem with this “classic” method was all links with a bandwidth higher than 10Gbps (10,000,000,000 bps, represented as 10,000,000 Kbps in the formula) were given the same BW value as 10Gbps.  In other words, whether you put a single link of 10Gbps into that formula,  a link of 40Gbps, or an Etherchannel with a combined bandwidth of 80Gbps…they all equated to “1″. So in Classic Mode EIGRP, EIGRP couldn’t distinguish between these types of links to develop an accurate path to a destination.

When EIGRP Wide-Metrics were developed, Cisco applied an “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” factor against some portions of the formula (which equates to the value of 65,536) to account for faster links (as well as smaller delay values).  They also changed the terminology in the formula from “bandwidth” to “throughput”. So now the “new” formula for EIGRP Wide-Metrics does the following to the “minimum bandwidth” portion of the formula:

Minimum Throughput = (10^7 * 65536)/Bw), (remember that Bw is in Kbps) where 65536 is the “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” constant.

By multiplying 10^7 against 65,536 EIGRP, Wide-Metrics can now accurately differentiate between links of any speed/bandwidth. EIGRP Wide-Metrics also multiply this value of 65,536 (the “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” constant) against the Delay sum.

But here’s the problem,  the computed value of this new formula might NOT FIT into the IP Routing Table (called the “RIB” – Routing Information Base).

When you view the output of “show ip route” for any given route, you see two values contained in brackets.  For an EIGRP-learned route, the first number in the brackets represents the Administrative Distance.  The second value represents what I call the “EIGRP Distance”.  Others call this simply the route “metric” or “EIGRP Composite Cost”.  No matter what term you use, this field in the RIB is only 4-bytes long.


Here is the problem,  EIGRP wide metrics (because they have an “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” multiplier of 65,536 used against several of the vector-metrics such as bandwidth and delay) could come up with a distance value so large…that the resulting distance value doesn’t FIT within a 4-byte value in the RIB.

The maximum decimal value that can be contained within a 4-byte number is 4,294,967,296.  However, if you were to place one’s (1′s) in each placeholder the EIGRP wide-metrics formula, the resultant bandwidth value (by itself) would be so large that it would break the boundaries of a 4-byte placeholder in the RIB:

BW = (10^7 * 65536)/1) = 655,360,000,000

and that is even BEFORE adding the sum-of-the-delays into the mix.:

((K1*[655,360,000,000) + (K2*Scaled Bw)/(256 – Load) + (K3*Scaled Delay)*(K5/(Reliability + K4)))

The result would be, that while EIGRP was able to calculate a Distance value, that value would be too large to be placed into the RIB. This could happen in a couple of scenarios:

  • An EIGRP packet containing a really slow-speed link in the path (like a 56Kbps dialup link)
  • Redistribution of other protocols into EIGRP, and selecting a “bandwidth” value (within the “metric” keyword) that was too low.

Bandwidth is too small

And so here’s the rub…EIGRP Wide-Metrics supply the ability to differentiate between links of all kinds of different bandwidth values (due to the additional “EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE” factor of 65,536) but the resultant EIGRP Distance value could be too large to fit into the 4-byte “Metric” field within the RIB. If that were the case, this is what you’d see (notice the words, “FD is Infinity” below for the EIGRP routes to as well as

Well…those engineers at Cisco were pretty smart and incorporated a special little “tweak” into Wide-Metrics to account for just this problem. This tweak is called the “metric rib-scale”. What this does, is to take all EIGRP Feasible Distance values (which may-or-may-not be too large to fit into the 4-byte RIB “metric” value) and DIVIDE THEM by a value called…you guessed it, the “metric rib-scale”. The default value of the “metric rib-scale” is 128 which, for most normal routes, is enough to bring them down to size to fit into the RIB. This value can be seen in the following output:

This explains why, when viewing the EIGRP Topology Table, an entry for a prefix will display both the 64-bit EIGRP Distance value…as well as the “scaled” values (that was divided by 128) as the “RIB” value:

And here you can see that scaled RIB metric reflected in the IP Routing Table (since the original EIGRP Feasible Distance was too large to fit):

But sometimes, the 64-bit Feasible Distance of a route is so large, that scaling/dividing it by the default RIB-Scale value of 128 simply isn’t enough. As I previously showed you, these types of EIGRP Topology entries will show as “FD is Infinity”. It is for this reason, that one may need to adjust this value to a larger RIB-Scale factor (using the EIGRP command, “metric rib-scale”) such that the resulting quotient is small enough to fit into the RIB.

For example, let’s take a look at this output again…

Even if we divide the FD of 656,671,375,360 by the default RIB-Scale value of 128 the quotient would be 5,130,245,120 which is still larger than our maximum allowable RIB metric of 4,294,967,296. It is for this reason that we would need to adjust the RIB-Scale value to something else (larger than 128) to create a quotient that was smaller than 4,294,967,296. The RIB-Scale is a configurable number between “1″ and “255″. So by increasing the number beyond the default of 128 we can create quotients that are small enough to fit within the RIB (IP Routing Table).

So let’s apply a new RIB-Scale value to EIGRP and see how that same route, which was previously listed as “Infinity” can fit into the RIB;

(BEFORE…with the default RIB-Scale value)


(AFTER applying a larger RIB-Scale value)



Rohit has been in the networking industry for more than 17 years, with a focus on Cisco networking for the past 15 years. Rohit not only brings his years of teaching experience to the classroom, but also years of real-world enterprise and service provider experience. Rohit has assisted hundreds of engineers in obtaining their CCIE certification, and has been conducting CCIE RS, CCIE SEC, CCIE SP and CCIE Collaboration for Cisco Systems worldwide. Rohit currently holds 5xCCIE’s (Routing Switching, Service Provider, Security, Voice and Collaboration). When not teaching or developing new products, Rohit consults with large ISPs and enterprise customers in India and UK. Rohit is currently pursuing his CCIE Data Center certification.


According to the 2018 CIO Survey many organizations are having trouble finding and retaining talent with the necessary skillset to fill positions related to some of today’s most popular and cutting edge technologies. Organizations point to education program’s inability to keep up with rapid changes in modern technology, as well as a general high demand for certain positions as the culprit (Florentine).

Luckily, at INE we add new courses every week on a variety of topics, including those that are considered among the newest and most cutting-edge. Continue Reading to see which IT jobs the CIO report has dubbed the highest in-demand.

This blog post is based off of an original CIO article by Sharon Florentine. To read the original article click here.


There’s no easy path to success in the IT sector, but there are certainly ways to increase your chances of having a rewarding career. One of the ways is knowing which fields in IT have the most potential for future growth. There are a lot of great choices out there, but as technology changes, so does the demand for certain positions. That’s why it’s crucial to plan for your training in advance, and lock in on an area where forecasters expect rapid growth over the next few years. Choose from the following list of the fastest growing IT jobs to land a rewarding position that’s certain to last.

1. Data Scientist

Not surprisingly, data science is one of the fastest growing and most lucrative jobs in the IT sector. Data scientists wrestle with big data on a daily basis. They use their advanced skills in programming, mathematics, and statistics to organize enormous amounts of jumbled data into a more usable form.
The work of the data scientist doesn’t stop there. Once they make this data more manageable, they use their analytical skills to solve a variety of business and financial problems. These skills include industry specific knowledge, contextual awareness, and a willingness to question assumptions. Depending on location and company, data scientists can quickly begin earning between $100,000-$150,000 a year.
Here are a few certifications that make data science candidates more attractive:

● AWS Big Data Specialty Certification
● Certified Analytics Professional (CAP)
● EMC Data Science Associate (EMCDSA)

2. Information Security Analyst

With cyber criminals getting smarter every day, tight security is now more important than ever. This applies to companies from every industry sector. The need for constantly tighter security also ensures that highly skilled information security analysts will always be in demand.
The average base salary for information security analysts is just over $76,000 a year. They additionally earn an average of about $5,300 in bonuses and other incentive programs, with some receiving up to about $14,000 a year. Do the math and you’ll see why the certifications you’ll need are more than justified.
There is a wide range of certifications that will make you a much more attractive candidate:

● Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH)
● Cisco CCIE Security Certification
● Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)
● Comptia Security+

While these aren’t the only IT security certifications available, they’ll certainly get you off to a good start.

3. IT Consultant

Due to the nature of their work, IT Consultants will always be in high demand. While it may vary from company to company, an IT consultant’s chief responsibility is advising clients on the most efficient use of their information technology. They also help improve the existing structure of a company’s IT, with an emphasis on dynamic, industry specific problem solving.
The average base salary for an IT Consultant who’s just starting out is approximately $70,000 a year. However, the salaries in closely related jobs such as Senior IT Consultants or IT Project Managers can range from $80,000-$107,000 a year.
The following IT Consultant certifications will help you land the best possible job:

● Project Management Professional (PMP)
● Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA)
● International Information Systems Certification Consortium (CISSP)
● Information Systems Audit and Control Associate (ISACA)

4. Network Architect

The field of Network Architecture also promises to continue growing at a rapid rate. Just as the name implies, a Network Architect designs and implements computer networks for companies from a wide variety of industry sectors. These include networks like the familiar local area network (LAN), intranets, and wide area networks (WAN). Depending on the company, these networks can connect anything from a few offices to an internationally distributed communication system.
In addition to having a rosy growth forecast, Network Architects also earn an excellent salary. The exact figures depend on location, company, and level of experience, but they typically range between $60,000-$140,00 a year. The median Network Architect salary is approximately $91,000 a year.
Like most attractive IT jobs, there are a number of Network Architecture certifications available. Choose from among these to nab the best job and maximize your chances for advancement:

● Cisco CCIE Collaboration Certification
● Cisco CCIE Data Center Certification
● Cisco CCIE Routing and Switching Certification

5. Cloud Engineer

Cloud engineers are IT personnel who are responsible for tasks related to the field of cloud computing. The tasks involved in cloud computing can include initial design, cloud management, support, and maintenance.
Cloud engineers earn an average salary of about $95,000 a year. Many companies are looking for candidates with the following certifications:

• AWS Certified SysOps Administrator-Associate
• Cisco CCNA Cloud
• CompTIA Cloud+ Certification

Interested in pursuing one of the careers or certifications mentioned above? INE has all of the training materials necessary to help you pass your certification exams and land the job of your dreams. Check out all of our training solutions at

Author: Benjamin Shepardson founder of NoStop Ghostwriting. As the company’s leader, Ben brings to the table an innate ability to help small businesses compete with larger competitors through content strategies and SEO.


    “What Is a Data Scientist?” Multichannel Marketing: What It Is and Why It Matters | SAS,
    “Salary: Data Scientist.” Glassdoor,,14.htm.
    Jobs, Best Technology. “How Much Can a Information Security Analyst Expect to Get Paid?” U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report,
    “Salary: Information Security Analyst.” Glassdoor,,28.htm.
    “Salary: IT Consultant.” Glassdoor,,13.htm.
    “Salary: Senior IT Consultant.” Glassdoor,,20.htm.
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    “Salary: Network Architect.” Glassdoor,,17.htm.
    “What Is Cloud Computing? – Definition from” SearchCloudComputing,
    “What Is Cloud Computing? – Definition from” SearchCloudComputing,
    “Salary: Cloud Engineer.” Glassdoor,,14.htm.


Tune in Tomorrow, May 31st, at 10 am PDT/ 1 pm EDT for a FREE live webinar with expert instructor Keith Bogart (CCIE #4923).


About This Webinar:

Understanding the logic of 802.1d and how it builds a loop-free “tree” is critical to passing any Cisco certification exam. Presented by INE instructor Keith Bogart (CCIE #4923), this session will take you through that logic so that, given any bridged/switched layer-2 network, you can predict what tree will be formed. Ask questions live with an experienced industry expert!


Don’t believe us? Take a look at these statistics.


Don’t miss our CCNA/CCNP Kickoff with Keith Bogart Tomorrow!


Join Keith May 8th at 10 am PST/ 1 pm EST for his CCNA/CCNP Kickoff.

This is a FREE live session that is open to everyone. In this open forum, you’ll have the opportunity to ask Keith all of your questions regarding the CCNA or CCNP Routing & Switching exam and related technologies.

Get all of your questions answered by an experienced industry expert! Just click here.


It’s that time again! Tune in on May 7 at 10 am PST/ 1 pm EST for our monthly CCNA Kickoff session with expert instructor Keith Bogart.


This is a FREE session in which Keith (CCIE #4923) will present everything you need to know to get started on your CCNA journey.

What Keith will cover in this months webinar:

  • How to get started by making a study schedule
  • Strategies to prevent you from becoming overwhelmed throughout the exam process
  • CCNA certification test format
  • Which topics to study, and how in depth
  • What study tools will be the most useful
  • What to expect when you walk into the testing center

You can view this, and all of our other webinars here.


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