Posts from ‘CCNA’


Tomorrow, March 15th, we will air our March 2018 Networking Technologies Live Session with Keith Bogart. This course is designed for those with absolutely no knowledge of computer networks, but who would like to learn more and possibly head down a career path working on computer networks.


    March 16, 2018 10 am PST/ 1 pm EST

    Instructor Info:
    This Course is taught by Keith Bogart, CCIE #4923. Keith started his networking career as customer service representative at Cisco Systems in 1996. His desire to learn more soon led him to a position as a Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) engineer on the “Dial-Access” team, and within six months he had obtained his Dial-ISP CCIE. He later became a network consulting engineer and obtained his CCNA certification while teaching the technologies to Cisco employees during his lunch breaks. Keith was the first instructor on Cisco’s TAC Training team, where he taught a wide range of internetworking topics and later developed and taught other courses such as routing protocols, LAN switching, MPLS, 802.1x, and CCNA. After almost 17 years with Cisco, Keith joined a small startup and focused on 802.11 Wi-Fi technologies, during which time he obtained his CWNA certification. He is now very happy to be working with INE as an instructor for Routing & Switching.

    Who Should Watch:
    Anyone with little to no knowledge about the IT and networking industry that would like to learn more.

    Why You Should Watch:
    This live session will allow you to find out more about what a computer network is, what types of things it can be used for, and what types of careers are available for those who want to design, install, monitor, and troubleshoot networks by asking questions, and discussing these topics with an industry expert.

Don’t forget to watch Keith Bogart’s live CCNA/CCNP Q&A session TODAY at 1pm!


During this live Q&A Keith bogart will answer all of your questions about the Cisco CCNA and CCNP Routing and Switching exams. Check back at 1 pm (EST) to get all of your questions answered by an industry expert.


Watch our March 2018 CCNA Kickoff Session with Keith Bogart TOMORROW at 1:30 PM EST.


This kickoff session for those who are interested in, or have started to study for the CCNA certification. In this free session, we will cover common trouble areas that most people experience when getting started with their certification. Topics include: how to approach making a study schedule, strategies for not becoming overwhelmed during the study process, deciding whether to take one test or two to get your CCNA, what to expect when you walk into the testing center, which topics to study and how in depth, and what study tools can be useful. Keith will also discuss the testing experience and the CCNA Certification test format.

When: March 7th at 10:30 am PST/ 1:30 pm EST

Estimated Length: 3 hours

Instructor: Keith Bogart CCIE #4923

Cost: FREE


Presented by INE instructor Keith Bogart (CCIE #4923), this free 60 minute session is an open forum for anyone seeking information regarding the Cisco CCNA or CCNP Routing & Switching exam and related technologies. Ask questions live with an experienced industry expert!


When: February 9th at 10 am (PST)/1 pm (EST)

Who Should Watch: Anyone with questions about earning their associate or professional level Cisco certification

Instructor: Keith Bogart CCIE #4923


Tune into our live CCNA Kickoff session to get advice from a seasoned professional on what to expect during the CCNA Certification exam, and how to pass the first time.

When: February 1st at 10 am PST/ 1 pm EST

Estimated Length: 3 hours

Instructor: Keith Bogart CCIE #4923

Cost: FREE

Who Should Watch:
This webinar is for anyone and everyone! Since this webinar is geared towards those who are just starting out on their journey towards CCNA certification, no prior knowledge is needed in order to participate, just an interest in earning your CCNA.

What We’ll Discuss:
We will cover common trouble areas that most people experience when getting started with their CCNA certification, such as how to approach making a study schedule and strategies for not becoming overwhelmed by the sheer quantity of topics to be learned. We will also discuss the testing experience and the CCNA Certification test format. Topics include: Deciding whether to take one test or two to get your CCNA, What to expect when you walk into the testing center, which topics to study and how in depth, and what study tools can be useful. Last, Keith will talk about his own experience taking the CCNA exam and offer advice based off of his own personal observations.

Check Out All of Our Upcoming Webinars:

CCNA/CCNP Q&A: February 2018
February 9, 2018 10 am (PST)/ 1 PM (EST)

Deciphering Spanning-Tree Technologies
February 16, 2018 10 am (PST)/ 1 pm (EST)

Introduction to Networking Technologies
March 15, 2018 10 am (PST)/ 1 pm (EST)



The following question was recently sent to me regarding PPP and CHAP:


At the moment I only have packet tracer to practice on, and have been trying to setup CHAP over PPP.

It seems that the “PPP CHAP username xxxx” and “PPP CHAP password xxxx” commands are missing in packet tracer.

I have it set similar to this video… (you can skip the first 1 min 50 secs)

As he doesn’t use the missing commands, if that were to be done on live kit would it just use the hostname and magic number to create the hash?


Also, in bi-directional authentication, do both routers have to use the same password or can they be different as long as they match what they expect from the other router?

Thanks, Paul.


Here was my reply:

Hi Paul,

When using PPP CHAP keep in mind four fundamental things:

  1. The “magic number” that you see in PPP LCP messages has nothing to do with Authentication or CHAP.  It is simply PPPs way of trying to verify that it has a bi-directional link with a peer. When sending a PPP LCP message a random Magic Number is generated.  The idea is that you should NOT see your own Magic Number in LCP messages received from your PPP Peer.  If you DO see the same magic number that you transmited, that means you are talking to yourself (your outgoing LCP CONFREQ message has been looped back to you).  This might happen if the Telco that is providing your circuit is doing some testing or something and has temporarily looped-back your circuit.
  2. At least one of the devices will be initiating the CHAP challenge.  In IOS this is enabled with the interface command, “ppp authentication chap”.  Technically it only has to be configured on one device (usually the ISP router that wishes to “challenge” the incoming caller) but with CHAP you can configure it on both sides if you wish to have bi-directional CHAP challenges.
  3. Both routers need a CHAP password, and you have a couple of options on how to do this.
  4. The “hash” that is generated in an outgoing PPP CHAP Response is created as a combination of three variables, and without knowing all three values the Hash Response cannot be generated:
  • A router’s Hostname
  • The configured PPP CHAP password
  • The PPP CHAP Challenge value

I do all of my lab testing on real hardware so I can’t speak to any “gotchas” that might be present in simulators like Packet Tracer.  But what I can tell you, is that on real routers the side that is receiving the CHAP challenge must be configured with an interface-level CHAP password.

The relevant configurations are below as an example.

ISP router that is initiating the CHAP Challenge for incoming callers:

username Customer password cisco
interface Serial1/3
 encapsulation ppp
 ppp authentication chap
 ip address x.x.x.x y.y.y.y

Customer router placing the outgoing PPP call to ISP:

hostname Customer
interface Serial1/3
 encapsulation ppp
 ppp chap password cisco
 ip address x.x.x.x y.y.y.y

If you have a situation where you expect that the Customer Router might be using this same interface to “call” multiple remote destinations, and use a different CHAP password for each remote location, then you could add the following:


Customer router placing the outgoing PPP call to ISP-1 (CHAP password = Bob) and ISP-2 (CHAP password = Sally):

hostname Customer
username ISP-1 password Bob
username ISP-2 password Sally
interface Serial1/3
 encapsulation ppp
 ppp chap password cisco
 ip address x.x.x.x y.y.y.y

Notice in the example above, the “username x password y” commands supercede the interface-level command, “ppp chap password x”. But please note that the customer (calling) router always needs the “ppp chap password” command configured at the interface level.  A global “username x password y” in the customer router does not replace this command.  In this situation, if the Customer router placed a call to ISP-3 (for which there IS no “username/password” statement) it would fallback to using the password configured at the interface-level.

Lastly, the “username x password y” command needs to be viewed differently depending on whether or not it is configured on the router that is RESPONDING to a Challenge…or is on the router that is GENERATING the Challenge:

  • When the command “username X password Y” is configured on the router that is responding to the CHAP Challenge (Customer router), the router’s local “hostname” and password in this command (along with the received Challenge) will be used in the Hash algorithm to generate the CHAP RESPONSE.


  • When the command “username X password Y” is configured on the router that is generating the CHAP Challenge (ISP Router), once the ISP router receives the CHAP Authentication Response (which includes the hostname of the Customer/calling router) it will match that received Hostname to a corresponding “username X password Y” statement. If one is found that matches, then the ISP router will perform its own CHAP hash of the username, password, and Challenge that it previously created to see if its own, locally-generated result matches the result that was received in the CHAP Response.

Lastly, you asked, “ Also, in bi-directional authentication, do both routers have to use the same password or can they be different as long as they match what they expect from the other router?”

Hopefully from my explanations above it is now clear that in the case of bi-directional authentication, the passwords do indeed have to be the same on both sides.


Hope that helps!





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There was an interesting post on IEOC yesterday in regards to an OSPF virtual link. Below is the original post and questions to win at the bottom of this post.

Okay, I have never came across anything like this before. On R2 and R3 connected via serial with HDLC. OSPF network type default to P2P. I configured VL using the OSPF RIDs of both routers. R3 VL comes up and R2 VL is down. I changed just about every option which makes logical sense and nothing works. I reboot and clear process and still nothing. Out of shear desperation I changed the network-types to P2MP on both sides and voila it works. I tried testing broadcast and that doesn’t work. Only difference I can find is the mask changed from /24 to /32 in the LSA…as it should. But I am not sure why this has any bearing on the VL coming up.

Rack1R2#show ip ospf vir

Virtual Link OSPF_VL8 to router is down

Rack1R3#show ip ospf vir
Virtual Link OSPF_VL0 to router is up

Rack1R2(config)#int s0/1/0
Rack1R2(config-if)#ip ospf network p
Rack1R2(config-if)#ip ospf network point-to-m
*May 9 15:28:40.599: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr on Serial0/1/0 from FULL to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Interface down or detached
*May 9 15:28:41.007: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr on Serial0/1/0 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
*May 9 15:28:46.815: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 1, Nbr on OSPF_VL8 from LOADING to FULL, Loading Done
Any thoughts??

Continue Reading

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Between now and the end of the week we will be releasing our January to June 2013 schedule. You will see a lot of new classes/bootcamps added covering a wide range of topics. These include CCNA Data Center, CCNP Data Center, CCNP Wireless, CCNA Service Provider, CCNP Service Provider, Nexus 1000v & Open vSwitch, UCS & OpenStack, Nexus Live Online Bootcamps, Nexus Live Onsite Bootcamps, etc. You will also notice we are adding new 2 day online courses covering a wide range of topics (ISE, WSE, IOS XR, IOS XE, OpenFlow, etc).

The biggest change that you will notice for 2013 is that for ALL of our new products we will offer hands-on labs and equipment rentals. We’ve made a big push for new hardware in 2012 and we’ll be making an even bigger push for 2013. During the first week of January you will see the new CCNP and CCIE Security racks along with the new CCIE Data Center racks coming online. Additionally our new CCNP Security course will have hands-on labs available around the same time frame.

In 2013 we will be making all of our CCNA courses available free of charge like how our CCNA and CCNA Voice courses are now. Not only will they be free to stream online, we will offer hands-on labs and equipment access for all tracks (CCNA Service Provider, CCNA Data Center tracks, etc). Some of the equipment will be offered free of charge for AAP members and some equipment even free of charge to the general public. The key to learning at this level isn’t to be bored to death with some “professional presenter” going over hours and hours of PowerPoint slides or some low budget video production with a “professional presenter” dancing around the screen. You need to be engaged by watching a real instructor cover the topics hands-on while you also following along on the equipment. Lastly in regards to the CCNA, you will see the current courses redone to allow for this new format.

For the workbooks will be retiring the workbook volume structure (Vol 1, Vol 2, etc) that we first introduced years ago and is now copied by nearly every vendor. We will be moving to a new format that is a single solution laid out in a structured manner as opposed to a portfolio of products. This new format allows for quicker updates and additions to the products along with many other benefits. The new CCIE Security and CCIE Data Center products will be the first to be offered in our new format.

Lastly I will be making a separate post later this month in regarding a new series of online classes that I personally will be doing next year.

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Just ahead of our brand new CCNA Voice live online bootcamp beginning this Monday, I thought it might be nice to provide an easy-to-follow graphic for those starting out in Voice (or on any other Cisco networking track). This graphic was from last year, but remains quite easy to follow for each and every Cisco track.

Be sure you have a high resolution set if you wish to see the entire thing, otherwise scrolling may be necessary.

Click here for the Cisco Career Certification Path poster

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INE is proud to announce the release of two brand new video products, the CCNA Routing & Switching Exam Course and the CCNA Routing & Switching Video Flashcards. Both of these products were written and delivered by Brian McGahan – three times CCIE #8593 in Routing & Switching, Security, and Service Provider – one of the most highly regarded and experienced CCIE instructors in the industry. Best of all, until Jan 1st 2012, streaming access is FREE to both the CCNA R&S Exam Course and CCNA R&S Video Flashcards, while download access to the CCNA R&S Exam Course is only $99! Additionally these classes support streaming to iPhone/iPad, Android, and Windows phone platforms, so you can take your training on the go.

To view these classes create a free account on the INE Members Site, then follow the links there once logged in.

Specifically the CCNA R&S Exam Course is a comprehensive look at the technologies covered in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Routing & Switching exams. With over 25 hours of instructor-led videos, this class contains both easy to understand and in-depth explanations, along with hands-on examples on the Cisco IOS Command Line Interface. The class will not only fully prepare you for the latest 640-822 ICND1 (CCENT), 640-816 ICND2, and 640-802 CCNA exams, but it will also expand your understanding of core technologies that are essential to know for beginning or advancing your career with today’s networks.

The CCNA R&S Video Flashcards are designed to help you test you knowledge before you sit for the actual ICND1, ICND2, or CCNA Composite exams. The thing that sets the Video Flashcards apart from other practice tests is that after every question, the instructor goes through a detailed explanation as to what the answer is, why it is the answer, and includes visual and hands on examples of the pertinent technology. We are considering adding Video Flashcard products for our other CCNA, CCNP, and CCIE tracks, so please post your comments below and give us some feedback about what you think of the Video Flashcard format!

Both of the above products are part of our larger All Access Pass video library. Available as a $159 per month or $1599 per year subscription, INE’s All Access Pass contains hundreds of hours of videos covering topics such as:

  • CCNA Routing & Switching
  • CCNA Voice
  • CCNA Security
  • CCNP Routing & Switching
  • CCNP Voice
  • CCNP Security
  • CCIE Routing & Switching
  • CCIE Voice
  • CCIE Security
  • CCIE Service Provider
  • And more!

Feel free to post your feedback about the new CCNA videos here, or email Brian McGahan directly at

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