Posts from ‘Cisco General’


As everyone knows INE has made INC 5000′s list of fastest growing educational companies for two years running and we’re having our best year ever by roughly 30% over our 2011 numbers. With this growth INE is once again expanding. Starting mid-January 2013 INE will have a new office in RTP, NC. The office in RTP will be for sales and support so that means sales will be available starting from 6am EST (-5 GMT) in January. We’re also doubling the size of our datacenter in Reno, NV in January. We’ve signed the lease on the building next to our current Reno datacenter and are close to finalizing the RTP sales/support location. We’re looking for a mid-level rack support engineer for the RTP office location and for Reno. Hours would be from 6am to 2pm Monday through Friday for RTP and 9am to 5pm Monday through Friday for Reno. For the Reno location I’m willing to relocate the right candidate and their family within the US. These will be fulltime permanent positions.

Additionally I’m looking for four fulltime support engineers internationally. These engineers would be responsible for evenings (US time) and weekends. The ideal candidate would be located around the +1 to +6 GMT timezone (Nigeria, UAE, Egypt, India, Romania, Pakistan, etc). These will be hourly contract positions.

Without listing a bunch of standard HR type responsibilities and requirements, let me just sum these positions up. You need to be diverse in troubleshooting issues with a broad range of technologies (R&S, SP, SC, Voice, DC, Storage, Wireless, Linux, etc) to provide front line support for our rental equipment via phone, chat and email. Also you need to be able to integrate well with our existing team.

For our US locations we provide zero cost health care for you and your family plus relocation assistance. For all locations we will cover costs associated with obtaining your CCIE which includes travel, exam fees, etc. When you’re not busy answering chats, tickets, etc ideally you will be on the racks yourself studying for your CCIE. So what about pay for these positions? Pay depends upon ability and not necessarily just experience.

To apply send a cover letter and resume to Include your salary requirements in the cover letter. After reviewing the cover letters and resumes our Support Team Manager will contact you and schedule a time to do a two hour graded assessment prior to an initial phone screen.

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Just announced at the Cisco Partner Summit yesterday, Cisco is making Unified Presence, IM and it’s Jabber client for Mac, PC, iPad, iPhone, Cisco Cius, Blackberry and all Android devices completely FREE. This probably has something to do with how badly they’ve been spanked in Presence server and client sales by Microsoft basically giving away the presence features of Lync (although MS does make you pay when you want to add Voice/Video features to those clients – just as Cisco will). At any rate and for whatever their reasons and motivations – I personally think it is a very, very smart move for Cisco. It’s also one that makes complete sense seeing that UCM v9 is about to go into beta testing next week. Understanding that the Jabber client can interact with video from any IP phone or Telepresence unit, and the fact that Cisco announced that this free Jabber client and Presence support is not only for those with existing IP Phones, but for every member of any enterprise with a UCM server, this makes the announcement all that more powerful. This doesn’t include Voice or Video, but those can be enabled later with a simple license upgrade. Still not bad at all – especially with the new Jabber client for Windows, and the fact that once installed it enables all MS Office apps to have native presence tied into them directly to Cisco Jabber. This was the entire reason that Cisco purchased Jabber.

Another thing that Cisco is making free (at least for some limited time) is their WebEx Meetings Beta offering – for up to 25 participants. This includes desktop sharing and VoIP as well. Sign up here.

Also of no small merit, Cisco just shipped its 50 millionth phone – that’s 50,000,000 phones shipped. I still remember putting in my first Selsius Call Manager more than 13 years ago. Not bad Cisco, not bad at all.

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Hi Brian-

A fellow CCIE candidate and I were recently discussing reflexive access lists and he brought up that in INE Vol 2, Lab 5, Section 6.1, the breakdown for reflexive access lists notes that traffic originated by the router is not reflected. He thought this may be because the traffic originating from the router is always control plane which I disagreed with, holding that the categorization is not strictly dependent on origin.

We consulted the Wendell Odom CCIE book and found this text, which further blurred the lines:

… But routers and switches must handle a variety of traffic, including BPDUs, routing updates, HSRP, CDP, CEF, process-switched packets, ARP, and management traffic such as SSH, SNMP, RADIUS. All of these are processed by the router or switch’s control plane…

Odom states that even SSH traffic can be considered control plane which seems contradicting to us.

We were hoping you could assist in drawing the line between the control plane and data plane. Is it determined by the source/destination of the packets, the use or intent of the packets, or is it more of a general abstract concept?

Thanks so much for the help!


Hi Joseph,

It’s kind of a gray area. The control plane in general is anything that’s needed in order to get routing working on that device; in other words, it is the “signalling” of the network. Control plane packets are destined to or locally originated by the router itself. This is really what separates the concept of the control and data plane.

What Odom is saying is that a routing update, let’s say OSPF, going to the router is process switched, which means that the general purpose CPU has to handle it. Management protocols, like Telnet, SSH, SNMP, etc. could be considered part of the control plane, but are more properly considered part of the Management Plane, which is a specific subset of the control plane. This may give you an idea of what I mean.

As for the data plane, sometimes called the Forwarding Plane, this is basically anything that goes *through* the router, and not *to* the router. The protocol or application itself doesn’t really determine whether the traffic is control, management, or data plane, but more importantly how the router processes it.

For example suppose we have a simple 3 router topology that is R1–R2–R3, and R1 and R3 are running BGP with each other. From R1 and R3′s perspective, these packets are part of the control plane, because they are locally originated/destined, and need to be process switched in order to look into the packet details and actually build the BGP table. However from R2′s perspective, these packets would be in its data plane, because the traffic is neither originated from or destined to it. If R2 was a distributed platform, say 7600, it would be able to CEF switch these BGP packets at the line card without having to consult the general Route Processor (RP). However regardless what architecture R1 and R3 used, this traffic would be process switched because it is their local control plane traffic.

The same would be true of Telnet in this case. If R1 Telnets to R3, on both of these routers the packets need to be handled by the control/management plane. However from R2′s perspective this is just data plane traffic that is transiting between its links.

As for the reflexive access list, it’s unrelated to this. The issue is that an outbound access-list does not affect locally generated traffic on the router. It’s an issue with the internal order of operations of the router’s processes.  Check this video for more information on the reflexive access list issue.


For each new CCIE Testimonial we are extending the seven years of success sale! Share your INE success story and congratulations to the following new CCIE Testimonials who have extended the sale thus far!

Thomas Fischer, CCIE #26636 – Routing & Switching

I am proud to let you know, that I passed my CCIE R&S Lab in Brussels on Aug. 5th. This was my second attempt. I want to express my deepest appreciation for your Products. I am a self-paced student, using Vol1 (*****), Vol2 (****) and Vol4 (***). Thanks INE, it feels so good to have a social life again :-) )

Matthew Ayre, CCIE #26654 – Service Provider

Big shout out for INE and their OEQ / lab preparation resources! I just cleared service provider on second attempt finishing about an hour and a half early. Was ~7% of passing the first time using INE 1 & 2 as my primary material then just drilled down on the finer details reading theory. The workbooks really developed the speed and confidence required to beat the exam!

Prateek Madaan, CCIE #26772 – Security

Had been a long and tough journey. Would really like to thank INE from the Core of my heart for facilitating in imparting the skills required not to just pass the exam but to DESERVE it as well…

There are many workbooks available which I prepared along with INE , do not want to name or list any one of them…or make any comparisons…But in comparisons INEs Security Workbooks may sound tough as compared to others BUT once you go through these workbooks is when you actually feel DESERVED the tag rather than just passing it.. Each of these workbooks and the tasks test each and every technology in detail and till the dead end….

In my last attempt on Version 2 I was deprived of the number by 1%, still followed and trusted INE workbooks and finally it helped….Today I am more happy not to procure the number but to actually have the feeling of confidence that ‘YES this time I deserve to be a CCIE’ and all due to the exhaustive INE workbooks….

Olusegun Olurotimi Medeyinlo, CCIE #26683 – Routing & Switching

I the Passed the CCIE R&S lab in Brussels on my Second attempt. I’d like to thank the instructors at INE for their excellent workbooks and blogs. Special thanks to Keith Barker for his encouragement and advice.

Now, I have my own CCIE number #22683.

Congratulations to everyone who passed the CCIE Lab Exam. Our instructors, authors, and staff have been committed to helping you pass your exam for the past seven years and we will continue to make your exam our number one priority. Only at INE.

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To celebrate INE’s 7th year anniversary, we will be extending a 30% discount on all self-paced products and 15% discount on instructor-led training for 77 hours for each success story we receive during the month of August. Over the years we have helped hundreds of candidates pass the CCIE Lab Exam, and we would like to thank all of you for making it possible.

Use discount code: INE7SP to save 30% on self-paced material or INE7ILT to save 15% on instructor-led training.



RFC, or Request for Comments, are documents published that describe various items surrounding computer networking. Generally, these are memorandums published by the Internet Engineering Task Force.

RFCs can be a great resource. For some unknown reason, most candidates preparing for the CCIE don’t take the time to review these documents, which can be very helpful in assisting with understanding the how and why of various networking components. Perhaps the language is a bit dry, or they prefer books with shiny covers.

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Coming June 7th, 2010 – CCIE Voice Deep Dive

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Mark Snow, dual CCIE (CCIE #14073) has joined Internetwork Expert as a CCIE Voice Instructor. Mark brings years of teaching, technical writing, and consulting experience to Internetwork Expert. Mark’s certifications include two CCIEs, (Voice and Security), CCVP, CCNP, CCDP, CSE, CQS-CIPCCES, CQS-CIPTDS, CQS-CIPTOS, CQS-CIPTSS, MCSE.

Mark’s reputation for teaching and product development is highly regarded in the voice networking community, and will be a great addition to the team at Internetwork Expert. Mark will be joining Internetwork Expert’s leading CCIE instructor team led by five time CCIE Brian Dennis (CCIE #2210), four time CCIE  Petr Lapukhov (CCIE #16379), three time CCIE Brian McGahan (CCIE #8593).

Internetwork Expert is proud to have Mark join our Voice team and looks forward to his contributions.

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The CCIE R/S Written Exam is more important than ever! Click the link below to sample our new course. This course will be available in all formats (Live, Live Online, and Class On Demand) in May of this year! This course will be unmatched in the industry and will prepare students fully for the CCIE R/S Written and beyond. Enjoy!

Web Cache Communication Protocol (WCCP)

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Question: What is the recommended way to use the product?
Answer: We recommend at the very least doing a four-question simulation each day during your studies. The simulation should quickly pinpoint your weak areas that require additional reading/study.

Question: How many total questions are there?
Answer: We are adding questions every day initially, and then we will add to the database at least every week. We will always offer a method to view all questions no matter how big the database becomes.

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