Posts Tagged ‘mapping’
Can you please help me understand use of Frame-Relay Interface-dlci command. It’s getting mysterious for me day by day as I am studying FR. The reason being is I earlier thought that I should only use this command on FR point to point subinterface. As Point to Point subinterface don’t allow us to put Frame relay map statements. Also in such case Inverse arp should be turned off. But while I was going through Cisco’s FR documentation on website I saw that in almost all examples they used interface dlci command on interface not on sub interface and also without turning off inverse arp. So the question now is if inverse arp is turned on then as per my understanding we need not to put this command as it will discover dlci settings through lmi signals automatically.
Kindly explain Interface Dlci command to me…
When I saw this post, I got to thinking a little bit. Mostly about the fact that the interface-dlci appears to be a much more misunderstood command than I ever gave it credit for! (poor thing…)
The quick answer is that the “frame-relay inteface-dlci” command simply says “This DLCI goes here” to the router.
On a physical interface, this command is largely irrelevant (more in a minute) because ALL DLCIs are assigned to the physical interface by default. If you are ever interested, concerned or otherwise bored, just check out “show frame-relay pvc” and you will see where they are assigned.
So in the case of sub-interfaces, there is no automagical assignment of DLCI numbers. Even if your subinterface number and DLCI number are the same. That’s just a sign of being anal-retentive (or as we consultants call it, “good at documentation”) or a little OCD. But you can technically have DLCI 100 on subinterface Serial 0/0.223. Kinda strange, but perfectly workable!
So whenever you have a subinterface, you need to do SOMETHING to tell the router “this DLCI goes here”.
So now let’s look at the next portion: Mapping. Layer3 to Layer2 mapping in particular. We can learn about L3-L2 mapping via Inverse ARP. This is on by default, but frowned upon in the CCIE Realm! “Show frame-relay map” will let you know if you have learned any addresses dynamically or not.
So if we DID allow Inverse ARP, whether our subinterfaces were point-to-point or multipoint ones, we COULD just use the “frame-relay interface-dlci” command and nothing else. (Yes, I know inverse ARP requests are not sent by default on subinterfaces, but responses still are. Watch your debugs!)
So the Interface-DLCI command assigned the PVC to a subinterface. Inverse ARP then took care of the mapping. What if we aren’t allowed to use Inverse ARP? Like for the CCIE lab? Ok, what are our options? Well, the “frame-relay map” command is the most obvious and well known. That works very well. The “frame-relay map” command both assigned L3-L2 mapping AND says “this DLCI goes here” all in one command!
Unless of course you are on a point-to-point subinterface. As you pointed out, you can’t use the map command there! But that’s ok, it’s not needed anyway! Point-to-point links have a different way of thinking. They view the world as “If it’s not my address it must be yours” and sends things out.
So that covers our two primary issues with PVC operations in Frame Relay. #1 is assigning the DLCI to an interface (no magic). #2 is the L3-L2 mapping to make IP actually work!
The last part I want to add (re: my “more in a minute” above) was that the “frame-relay inteface-dlci” command also serves another purpose which sometimes gets confusing in terms of where we just got through with things!
So where we left things with “frame-relay interface-dlci” commands:
1. Definitely used on point-to-point subinterfaces
2. Can be used on multipoint subinterfaces if Inverse ARP works
3. Not used on physical interfaces because all DLCIs belong there by default.
Now, just to mess with that logic a bit. When studying frame-relay, and particularly by the time you get into QoS configurations you will become familiar with frame-relay map-classes. Map classes can be assigned to an interface or subinterface without any problem. When this occurs, the information in the map-class gets appled to EVERY DLCI on that interface or subinterface.
So what happens if you have different QoS parameters for different PVCs that just happen to be on the same interface/subinterface? Hmmmm… Well, in comes the “frame-relay inteface-dlci” command again! See, it really IS a cool command!
The “frame-relay map” command does not have any parameter for adding a map-class. After you hit enter on your “frame-relay interface-dlci” command though, you’ll get a new sub-command prompt. Try using “?” here. You’ll see that you have the opportunity to specify a separate map-class for each and every DLCI that you have.
So if you see “frame-relay interface-dlci” commands on a physical interface. Or if you see them AND a “frame-relay map” command under a multipoint subinterface, this is the reason why. If you use the “frame-relay inteface-dlci” command AND the “frame-relay map” command for the same PVC, you will need to make sure the “frame-relay map” command comes first. Otherwise the router will express its displeasure!
So there are some very simple, but also some very powerful things the little “frame-relay interface-dlci” command does. Hopefully that will help you take some of the mystery out of things!
I ran into these nasty frame relay mappings during an initial lab set-up and was wondering why they are there, (even with inverse-arp disabled), and what they are actually doing. I was able to remove them only after writing my configuration to memory, and then performing a reload of the router.Router(config-if)#do show frame map Serial0/0 (up): ip 0.0.0.0 dlci 113(0x71,0x1C10) broadcast, CISCO, status defined, inactive Serial0/0 (up): ip 0.0.0.0 dlci 105(0x69,0x1890) broadcast, CISCO, status defined, active Serial0/0 (up): ip 0.0.0.0 dlci 104(0x68,0x1880) broadcast, CISCO, status defined, active Serial0/0 (up): ip 0.0.0.0 dlci 103(0x67,0x1870) broadcast, CISCO, status defined, active
This is actually an error relating to AutoInstall over Frame Relay. When the router boots up and does not have a configuration file saved in NVRAM, it attempts to run autoinstall to automatically find an IP address and download a config. The first thing the router does is to detect the encapsulation on its WAN interfaces, which in this case is Frame Relay. Once the router finds that it’s running Frame Relay, it attempts to send a config request via TFTP. In order to do this it needs an IP address, so it sends a BOOTP request out all DLCIs. Since the router doesn’t know what the unicast IP addresses are on the other ends of the circuits, it creates IPv4 mappings to 0.0.0.0 for all circuits and includes the “broadcast” keyword on them. This allows the router to encapsulate the BOOTP request out all DLCIs.
If you haven’t actually configured IP helper-address or a BOOTP server, the operation will fail. The result of this that we see is that when Frame Relay is re-enabled on the interfaces the mappings to 0.0.0.0 reappear. In some versions of IOS this can be fixed by removing Frame Relay and re-applying it, for example:
router#config t router(config)#interface s0/0 router(config-if)#encapsulation ppp router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay router(config-if)#end router#
In most versions however this does not work. Therefore the way to fix this is just to have the router not do autoinstall on bootup. Since the router does autoinstall because it doesn’t have a config saved in memory, the only way to 100% fix it is to save your config to NVRAM (wr m), and to reload.
The 3560 QoS processing model is tightly coupled with it’s hardware architecture borrowed from the 3750 series switches. The most notable feature is the internal switch ring, which is used for the switch stacking purpose. Packets entering a 3560/3750 switch are queued and serviced twice: first on the ingress, before they are put on the internal ring, and second on the egress port, where they have been delivered by the internal ring switching. In short, the process looks as follows:
[Classify/Police/Mark] -> [Ingress Queues] -> [Internal Ring] -> [Egress Queues]
For more insights and detailed overview of StackWise technology used by the 3750 models, visit the following link:
You may want to see the updated version of this post at:
Private VLAN concepts are quite simple, but Cisco’s implemenation and configuration steps are a bit confusing – with all the “mappings” and “associations” stuff. Here comes a short overview of how private VLANs work.
To begin with, let’s look at the concept of VLAN as a broadcast domain. What Private VLANs (PVANs) do, is split the domain into multiple isolated broadcast subdomains. It’s a simple nesting concept – VLANs inside a VLAN. As we know, Ethernet VLANs are not allowed to communicate directly, they need L3 device to forward packets between broadcast domains. The same concept applies to PVLANS – since the subdomains are isolated at level 2, they need to communicate using an upper level (L3 and packet forwarding) entity – such as router. However, there is difference here. Regular VLANs usually correspond to a single IP subnet. When we split VLAN using PVLANs, hosts in different PVLANs still belong to the same IP subnet, but they need to use router (another L3 device) to talk to each other (for example, by means of local Proxy ARP). In turn, router may either permit or forbid communications between sub-VLANs using access-lists.
Why would anyone need Private VLANs? Commonly, this kind of configurations arise in “shared” environments, say ISP co-location, where it’s beneficial to put multiple customers into the same IP subnet, yet provide a good level of isolation between them.
For our sample configuration, we will take VLAN 100 and divide it into two PVLANs – sub-VLANs 101 and 102. Take the regular VLAN and call it primary (VLAN 100 in our example), then divide ports, assigned to this VLAN, by their types:
Promiscuous (P): Usually connects to a router – a type of a port which is allowed to send and receive frames from any other port on the VLAN
Isolated (I): This type of port is only allowed to communicate with P-ports – they are “stub”. This type of ports usually connects to hosts
Community (C): Community ports are allowed to talk to their buddies, sharing the same group (of course they can talk to P-ports)
In order to implement sub-VLAN behavior, we need to define how packets are forwarded between different port types. First comes the Primary VLAN – simply the original VLAN (VLAN 100 in our example). This type of VLAN is used to forward frames downstream from P-ports to all other port types (I and C ports). In essense, Primary VLAN entails all port in domain, but is only used to transport frames from router to hosts (P to I and C). Next comes Secondary VLANs, which correspond to Isolated and Community port groups. They are used to transport frames in the opposite direction – from I and C ports to P-port.
Isolated VLAN: forwards frames from I ports to P ports. Since Isolated ports do not exchange frames with each other, we can use just ONE isolated VLAN to connect all I-Port to the P-port.
Community VLANs: Transport frames between community ports (C-ports) within to the same group (community) and forward frames uptstream to the P-ports of the primary VLAN.
This is how it works:
Primary VLANs is used to deliver frames downstream from router to all hosts; Isolated VLAN transports frames from stub hosts upstream to the router; Community VLANs allow frames exchange withing a single group and also forward frames in upstream direction towards P-port. All the basic MAC address learning and unknown unicast flooding princinples remain the same.
Let’s move to the configuration part (Primary VLAN 100, Isolated VLAN 101 and Community VLAN 102).
Create Primary and Secondary VLANs and group them into PVLAN domain:
! ! Creating VLANs: Primary, subject to subdivision ! vlan 100 private-vlan primary ! ! Isolated VLAN: Connects all stub hosts to router ! vlan 101 private-vlan isolated ! ! Community VLAN: allows a subVLAN within a Primary VLAN ! vlan 102 private-vlan community ! ! Associating ! vlan 100 private-vlan assoc 101,102
What this step is needed for, is to group PVLANs into a domain and establish a formal association (for syntax checking and VLAN type verifications).
Configure host ports and bind them to the respective isolated PVLANs. Note that a host port belongs to different VLANs at the same time: downstream primary and upstream secondary.
! ! Isolated port (uses isoalated VLAN to talk to P-port) ! interface FastEthernet x/y switchport mode private-vlan host switchport private-vlan host-association 100 101 ! ! Community ports: use community VLAN ! interface range FastEthernet x/y - z switchport mode private-vlan host switchport private-vlan host-association 100 102
Create a promiscuous port, and configure downstream mapping. Here we add secondary VLANs for which traffic is received by this P-port. Primary VLAN is used to send traffic downstream to all C/I ports as per their associations.
! ! Router port ! interface FastEthernet x/y switchport mode private-vlan promisc switchport private-vlan mapping 100 add 101,102
if you need to configure an SVI on the switch, you should add an interface correspoding to Primary VLAN only. Obviously that’s because of all secondary VLANs being simply “subordiantes” of primary. In our case the config would look like this:
interface Vlan 100 ip address 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0
Lastly, there is another feature, worths to be mentioned, called protected port or Private VLAN edge. The feature is pretty basic and avaiable even on low-end Cisco switches, allows to isolate ports in the same VLAN. Specifically, all ports in a VLAN, marked as protected are prohibited from sending frames to each other (but still allowed to send frames to other (non-protected) ports within the same VLAN). Usually, ports configurated as protected, are also configured not to receive unknown unicast (frame with destination MAC address not in switch’s MAC table) and multicast frames flooding for added security.
interface range FastEthernet 0/1 - 2 switchport mode access switchport protected switchport block unicast switchport block multicast