This weekend while working on content updates for CCIE R&S Version 5, I ran into an interesting problem.  In order to test some nuances of routing protocol updates and packet fragmentation, I was trying to generate BGP UPDATE messages that would exceed the transit MTU.  To do this I manually created a bunch of Loopback interfaces and did a redistribute connected into BGP.  When I looked at the packet capture details, I started to realize how many routes I'd actually need in order to fill up the... Read More
Five hours of new videos have been added to INE's CCIE Service Provider Version 3.0 Advanced Technologies Class which cover Multicast VPN and QoS support for Layer 3 MPLS VPNs.  Specifically these videos cover Multicast VPN & QoS theory, configuration, verification, and troubleshooting on both regular IOS and IOS XR, including PIM Sparse Mode, PIM Source Specific Multicast, VRF Aware PIM, Multicast Distribution Trees, BGP MDT exchange, and SP QoS Classification, Marking, Scheduling, and... Read More
One of our most anticipated products of the year - INE's CCIE Service Provider v3.0 Advanced Technologies Class - is now complete!  The videos from class are in the final stages of post production and will be available for streaming and download access later this week.  Download access can be purchased here for $299.  Streaming access is available for All Access Pass subscribers for as low as $65/month!  AAP members can additionally upgrade to the download version for $149. Read More
The BGP MED attribute, commonly referred to as the BGP metric, provides a means to convey to a neighboring Autonomous System (AS) a preferred entry point into the local AS.  BGP MED is a non-transitive optional attribute and thus the receiving AS cannot propagate it across its AS borders.  However, the receiving AS may reset the metric value upon receipt, if it so desires. Previous versions of BGP (v2 and v3) defined this attribute as the inter-AS metric (INTER_AS_METRIC) but in BGPv4 it is... Read More
Abstract This publication briefly covers the use of 3rd party next-hops in OSPF, RIP, EIGRP and BGP routing protocols. Common concepts are introduced and protocol-specific implementations are discussed. Basic understanding of the routing protocol function is required before reading this blog post. Overview Third-party next-hop concept appears only to distance vector protocol, or in the parts of the link-state protocols that exhibit distance-vector behavior. The idea is that a distance-vector... Read More
Our BGP class is coming up!  This class is for learners who are pursuing the CCIP track, or simply want to really master BGP.  I have been working through the slides, examples  and demos that we'll use in class, and it is going to be excellent.  :) If you can't make the live event, we are recording it, so it will be available as a class on demand, after the live event.    More information, can be found by clicking here. One of the common questions that comes up is "Why does the router choose... Read More
Last week we wrapped up the MPLS bootcamp, and it was a blast!   A big shout out to all the students who attended,  as well as to many of the INE staff who stopped by (you know who you are :)).    Thank you all. Here is the topology we used for the class, as we built the network, step by step. The class was organized and delivered in 30 specific lessons. Here is the "overview" slide from class: Read More
The purpose of event dampening is reducing the effect of oscillations on routing systems. In general, periodic process that affect the routing system as a whole should have the period no shorter than the system convergence time (relaxation time). Otherwise, the system will never stabilize and will be constantly updating its state. In reality, complex system have multiple periodic processes running at the same time, which results is in harmonic process interference and complex process spectrum.... Read More
Introduction In this series of posts, we are going to review some interesting topics illustrating unexpected behavior of the BGP routing protocol. It may seem that BGP is a robust and stable protocol, however the way it was designed inherently presents some anomalies in optimal route selection. The main reason for this is the fact that BGP is a path-vector protocol, much like a distance-vector protocol with optimal route selection based on policies, rather than simple additive metrics. The fact... Read More
Abstract: Inter-AS Multicast VPN solution introduces some challenges in cases where peering systems implement BGP-free core. This post illustrates a known solution to this problem, implemented in Cisco IOS software. The solution involves the use of special MP-BGP and PIM extensions. The reader is assumed to have understanding of basic Cisco's mVPN implementation, PIM-protocol and Multi-Protocol BGP extensions. Abbreviations used mVPN – Multicast VPN MSDP – Multicast Source Discovery Protocol PE... Read More

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