Since 2003 we've been helping IT professionals reach their career goals with help from top notch instructors and training materials. One of our most popular training resources - INE Bootcamps, continue to wow students and are a major step in the journey towards earning your certification. Thinking about signing up but aren't sure what to expect? Take it from our current students, participating in an INE Bootcamp is the best way to ensure you'll succeed in passing your certification exams.
CCNA Routing & Switching
I would arguably say that Keith is the best CCNA instructor in the nation. The interaction in this class is key. Listening to a lesson doesn't ensure comprehension, so Keith offered periodic quizzes; not only did this make the course increasingly interactive but also verified your understanding of the technologies discussed.
I very much look forward to going to the CCNP bootcamps. Thank you again Keith and staff for making my learning experience a great one!
Thomas Osborne - CCNA
The instructor Keith is very knowledgeable, patient, and polite. He covered everything possible with the amount of time we had. I also like the format of having to take routing and switching separately.
Sirak Zewdie - CCNA
Keith is a very detailed instructor and kept the class engaged throughout the week. He goes through material in the workbooks, but he also makes sure you have a real world understanding by either showing us through examples on the hardware or drawing it out. He makes sure there is an understanding before moving forward.
CCNP Routing & Switching
Keith is a very good mentor. This was my first time attending an in class session and it was a great, informative experience for me. Keith is one gem of an instructor. He was kind, patient and very informative all through the course. The way he explains concepts with his hand gestures and whiteboard diagrams helped me understand them with ease. The lab sessions were the best. I personally loved the way the course was structured and would definitely recommend it for students who are planning to take it. Overall it was more than a lifetime experience for the money I paid.
Keith was an amazing instructor. Luckily my class had so few people that he knew us by first name. Keith was knowledgeable in every aspect of the CCNP R&S track. You could even throw "scenarios" at him and he would work out the problem in his head. Then he would show you how the logic of the protocols would behave. Keith was able to go very in depth on the routing protocols and that really helped me feel more comfortable with large networks!
Victor Halili ~ CCNA 2x & CCNP
CCIE Routing & Switching Written
I would like to thank INE and Rohit Pardasani in particular for the great experience I had. This course has provided me with a good idea on how the CCIE exam should be approached in terms of study and preparation. I will highly recommend this training to anybody that is on the same journey as I am. Also, many thanks to the Coordinator in providing all the information needed and answering my questions, this made everything as smooth as I hoped.
I enjoyed Rohit personally. I would look for him if seeking another workshop. The content/material informed and challenged me. I feel better prepared.
John Wattenbarger ~ CCNP R&S and Passed CCIE Written October 2017
CCIE Routing & Switching Lab
Dave Smith exceeded my expectations concerning his depth of knowledge of the material covered. I especially appreciated his incorporation of first-hand experience and historical context of the technologies. Relevant anecdotes help to solidify "why" something does what it does, rather than just memorizing. His enthusiasm and passion for networking really do help keep you focused on and listening to everything he says.
Scott Bridges ~ CCIE #55860, VCP-NV, RCSP-WAN
This will open your eyes to the way you have to be prepared. Knowing the technology is one thing, but knowing different ways to resolve issues with the technologies and why is another! I would strongly recommend that every CCIE candidate take this class!
Vernado Deal ~ CCNP and CCNAx3 (Voice, R&S, Security)
CCIE Routing & Switching Graded Practice Labs
I thought this class was very beneficial in helping me prepare for my first CCIE lab attempt. It not only tested my knowledge on many aspects within the CCIE blueprint, but also included some of the question semantics and "gotchas" that should be expected on the lab. I do feel like I am better prepared for what I should expect on the actual lab, and I have identified some weak areas that I need to work on before I attempt my lab.
Scott Charles Kitchen - CCNP route & switch and CompTIA Security+
CCIE Collaboration Lab Exam
For my last CCIE, I finally decided to go to a real bootcamp. I've made a smart choice with INE's Collaboration bootcamp taught by 5xCCIE Rohit Pardasani. I highly recommend going to this class when you feel you are about 80-90% ready to take the lab. Rohit will set you on the right path to fill in the remaining gaps!
Roman Rodichev ~ 8xCCIE #7927, Founder & Chief Solution Architect @ ieMentor
CCIE Security Lab
The class has taught me how to approach the CCIE Lab Exam in a whole different way by showing me better ways to understand technical concepts instead of just memorizing commands, which at the end will be key to continue my certification and career goals. This is by far the best technical training I have received and will certainly be back for more.
CCIE Data Center Lab
Brian McGahan is an amazing instructor. He not only explained difficult concepts with ease but also helped in strengthening my basics of networking. He is very friendly to students and addresses even the silliest doubt without any hesitation, which instills confidence to speak your doubts and know that there is someone there for true guidance. I have enjoyed every moment of the class. I would love to attend future bootcamps whose instructor would be Brian McGahan.
The boot camp was outstanding, and Brian was very patient and informative. This one-week boot camp was the equivalent of months of studying on my own.
Matt - CCNP route/switch
CCIE Service Provider Lab
Rohit is an extremely knowledgeable professional. He gave me insight into routing protocols that I never had before.
Doug Gluntz ~ CCNP R&S, BCNP, ACWA
You may recall that, when using Named-Mode EIGRP configuration you have automatic access to EIGRP Wide Metrics. In addition to providing you a new K-Value (K6 which is used against Jitter and Energy) the EIGRP Distance formula has been revised (what they call, "scaled") to account for links above-and-beyond 10Gbps. Remember that with Classic-Mode EIGRP, the formula looked like this:
metric = ([K1 * bandwidth + (K2 * bandwidth) / (256 - load) + K3 * delay] * [K5 / (reliability + K4)]) * 256
In the formula, the "**bandwidth**" value was represented as:
BW = 10^7 / minimum BW
In the formula above, the "minimum BW" was represented as Kbps. The problem with this "classic" method was all links with a bandwidth higher than 10Gbps (10,000,000,000 bps, represented as 10,000,000 Kbps in the formula) were given the same BW value as 10Gbps. In other words, whether you put a single link of 10Gbps into that formula, a link of 40Gbps, or an Etherchannel with a combined bandwidth of 80Gbps...they all equated to "1". So in Classic Mode EIGRP, EIGRP couldn't distinguish between these types of links to develop an accurate path to a destination.
When EIGRP Wide-Metrics were developed, Cisco applied an "EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE" factor against some portions of the formula (which equates to the value of 65,536) to account for faster links (as well as smaller delay values). They also changed the terminology in the formula from "bandwidth" to "throughput". So now the "new" formula for EIGRP Wide-Metrics does the following to the "minimum bandwidth" portion of the formula:
Minimum Throughput = (10^7 * 65536)/Bw), (remember that Bw is in Kbps) where 65536 is the "EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE" constant.
By multiplying 10^7 against 65,536 EIGRP, Wide-Metrics can now accurately differentiate between links of any speed/bandwidth. EIGRP Wide-Metrics also multiply this value of 65,536 (the "EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE" constant) against the Delay sum.
But here's the problem, the computed value of this new formula might NOT FIT into the IP Routing Table (called the "RIB" - Routing Information Base).
When you view the output of "show ip route" for any given route, you see two values contained in brackets. For an EIGRP-learned route, the first number in the brackets represents the Administrative Distance. The second value represents what I call the "EIGRP Distance". Others call this simply the route "metric" or "EIGRP Composite Cost". No matter what term you use, this field in the RIB is only 4-bytes long.
Here is the problem, EIGRP wide metrics (because they have an "EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE" multiplier of 65,536 used against several of the vector-metrics such as bandwidth and delay) could come up with a distance value so large...that the resulting distance value doesn't FIT within a 4-byte value in the RIB.
The maximum decimal value that can be contained within a 4-byte number is 4,294,967,296. However, if you were to place one's (1's) in each placeholder the EIGRP wide-metrics formula, the resultant bandwidth value (by itself) would be so large that it would break the boundaries of a 4-byte placeholder in the RIB:
BW = (10^7 * 65536)/1) = 655,360,000,000
and that is even BEFORE adding the sum-of-the-delays into the mix.:
((K1*[655,360,000,000) + (K2*Scaled Bw)/(256 – Load) + (K3*Scaled Delay)*(K5/(Reliability + K4)))
The result would be, that while EIGRP was able to calculate a Distance value, that value would be too large to be placed into the RIB. This could happen in a couple of scenarios:
- An EIGRP packet containing a really slow-speed link in the path (like a 56Kbps dialup link)
- Redistribution of other protocols into EIGRP, and selecting a "bandwidth" value (within the "metric" keyword) that was too low.
And so here's the rub...EIGRP Wide-Metrics supply the ability to differentiate between links of all kinds of different bandwidth values (due to the additional "EIGRP_WIDE_SCALE" factor of 65,536) but the resultant EIGRP Distance value could be too large to fit into the 4-byte "Metric" field within the RIB. If that were the case, this is what you'd see (notice the words, "FD is Infinity" below for the EIGRP routes to 18.104.22.168/32 as well as 22.214.171.124/24)
Well...those engineers at Cisco were pretty smart and incorporated a special little "tweak" into Wide-Metrics to account for just this problem. This tweak is called the "metric rib-scale". What this does, is to take all EIGRP Feasible Distance values (which may-or-may-not be too large to fit into the 4-byte RIB "metric" value) and DIVIDE THEM by a value called...you guessed it, the "metric rib-scale". The default value of the "metric rib-scale" is 128 which, for most normal routes, is enough to bring them down to size to fit into the RIB. This value can be seen in the following output:
This explains why, when viewing the EIGRP Topology Table, an entry for a prefix will display both the 64-bit EIGRP Distance value...as well as the "scaled" values (that was divided by 128) as the "RIB" value:
And here you can see that scaled RIB metric reflected in the IP Routing Table (since the original EIGRP Feasible Distance was too large to fit):
But sometimes, the 64-bit Feasible Distance of a route is so large, that scaling/dividing it by the default RIB-Scale value of 128 simply isn't enough. As I previously showed you, these types of EIGRP Topology entries will show as "FD is Infinity". It is for this reason, that one may need to adjust this value to a larger RIB-Scale factor (using the EIGRP command, "metric rib-scale") such that the resulting quotient is small enough to fit into the RIB.
For example, let's take a look at this output again...
Even if we divide the FD of 656,671,375,360 by the default RIB-Scale value of 128 the quotient would be 5,130,245,120 which is still larger than our maximum allowable RIB metric of 4,294,967,296. It is for this reason that we would need to adjust the RIB-Scale value to something else (larger than 128) to create a quotient that was smaller than 4,294,967,296. The RIB-Scale is a configurable number between "1" and "255". So by increasing the number beyond the default of 128 we can create quotients that are small enough to fit within the RIB (IP Routing Table).
So let's apply a new RIB-Scale value to EIGRP and see how that same route, which was previously listed as "Infinity" can fit into the RIB;
(BEFORE...with the default RIB-Scale value)
(AFTER applying a larger RIB-Scale value)
According to the 2018 CIO Survey many organizations are having trouble finding and retaining talent with the necessary skillset to fill positions related to some of today’s most popular and cutting edge technologies. Organizations point to education program’s inability to keep up with rapid changes in modern technology, as well as a general high demand for certain positions as the culprit (Florentine).
Luckily, at INE we add new courses every week on a variety of topics, including those that are considered among the newest and most cutting-edge. Continue Reading to see which IT jobs the CIO report has dubbed the highest in-demand.
This blog post is based off of an original CIO article by Sharon Florentine. To read the original article click here.
Contact a Training Specialist at email@example.com, or give us a call at +1-877-224-8987 or +1-775-826-4344 (outside the U.S.) for more information.
Don't miss our CCNA/CCNP Kickoff with Keith Bogart Tomorrow!
Join Keith May 8th at 10 am PST/ 1 pm EST for his CCNA/CCNP Kickoff.
This is a FREE live session that is open to everyone. In this open forum, you'll have the opportunity to ask Keith all of your questions regarding the CCNA or CCNP Routing & Switching exam and related technologies.
Get all of your questions answered by an experienced industry expert! Just click here.
Presented by INE instructor Keith Bogart (CCIE #4923), this free 60 minute session is an open forum for anyone seeking information regarding the Cisco CCNA or CCNP Routing & Switching exam and related technologies. Ask questions live with an experienced industry expert!
When: February 9th at 10 am (PST)/1 pm (EST)
Who Should Watch: Anyone with questions about earning their associate or professional level Cisco certification
Instructor: Keith Bogart CCIE #4923
The following question was recently sent to me regarding PPP and CHAP:
At the moment I only have packet tracer to practice on, and have been trying to setup CHAP over PPP.
It seems that the "PPP CHAP username xxxx" and "PPP CHAP password xxxx" commands are missing in packet tracer.
I have it set similar to this video... (you can skip the first 1 min 50 secs)
As he doesn't use the missing commands, if that were to be done on live kit would it just use the hostname and magic number to create the hash?
Also, in bi-directional authentication, do both routers have to use the same password or can they be different as long as they match what they expect from the other router?
Here was my reply:
When using PPP CHAP keep in mind four fundamental things:
- The "magic number" that you see in PPP LCP messages has nothing to do with Authentication or CHAP. It is simply PPPs way of trying to verify that it has a bi-directional link with a peer. When sending a PPP LCP message a random Magic Number is generated. The idea is that you should NOT see your own Magic Number in LCP messages received from your PPP Peer. If you DO see the same magic number that you transmited, that means you are talking to yourself (your outgoing LCP CONFREQ message has been looped back to you). This might happen if the Telco that is providing your circuit is doing some testing or something and has temporarily looped-back your circuit.
- At least one of the devices will be initiating the CHAP challenge. In IOS this is enabled with the interface command, “ppp authentication chap”. Technically it only has to be configured on one device (usually the ISP router that wishes to “challenge” the incoming caller) but with CHAP you can configure it on both sides if you wish to have bi-directional CHAP challenges.
- Both routers need a CHAP password, and you have a couple of options on how to do this.
- The "hash" that is generated in an outgoing PPP CHAP Response is created as a combination of three variables, and without knowing all three values the Hash Response cannot be generated:
- A router's Hostname
- The configured PPP CHAP password
- The PPP CHAP Challenge value
I do all of my lab testing on real hardware so I can't speak to any "gotchas" that might be present in simulators like Packet Tracer. But what I can tell you, is that on real routers the side that is receiving the CHAP challenge must be configured with an interface-level CHAP password.
The relevant configurations are below as an example.
ISP router that is initiating the CHAP Challenge for incoming callers:
username Customer password cisco
ppp authentication chap
ip address x.x.x.x y.y.y.y
Customer router placing the outgoing PPP call to ISP:
ppp chap password cisco
ip address x.x.x.x y.y.y.y
If you have a situation where you expect that the Customer Router might be using this same interface to "call" multiple remote destinations, and use a different CHAP password for each remote location, then you could add the following:
Customer router placing the outgoing PPP call to ISP-1 (CHAP password = Bob) and ISP-2 (CHAP password = Sally):
username ISP-1 password Bob
<em><strong>username ISP-2 password Sally</strong></em>
ppp chap password cisco
ip address x.x.x.x y.y.y.y
Notice in the example above, the "username x password y" commands supercede the interface-level command, "ppp chap password x". But please note that the customer (calling) router always needs the "ppp chap password" command configured at the interface level. A global "username x password y" in the customer router does not replace this command. In this situation, if the Customer router placed a call to ISP-3 (for which there IS no "username/password" statement) it would fallback to using the password configured at the interface-level.
Lastly, the "username x password y" command needs to be viewed differently depending on whether or not it is configured on the router that is RESPONDING to a Challenge...or is on the router that is GENERATING the Challenge:
- When the command "username X password Y" is configured on the router that is responding to the CHAP Challenge (Customer router), the router's local "hostname" and password in this command (along with the received Challenge) will be used in the Hash algorithm to generate the CHAP RESPONSE.
- When the command "username X password Y" is configured on the router that is generating the CHAP Challenge (ISP Router), once the ISP router receives the CHAP Authentication Response (which includes the hostname of the Customer/calling router) it will match that received Hostname to a corresponding "username X password Y" statement. If one is found that matches, then the ISP router will perform its own CHAP hash of the username, password, and Challenge that it previously created to see if its own, locally-generated result matches the result that was received in the CHAP Response.
Lastly, you asked, " Also, in bi-directional authentication, do both routers have to use the same password or can they be different as long as they match what they expect from the other router?"
Hopefully from my explanations above it is now clear that in the case of bi-directional authentication, the passwords do indeed have to be the same on both sides.
Hope that helps!
We are excited to announce the arrival of INE's CCNP Routing & Switching 10-Day Bootcamps!
Both live on-site and online interactive Bootcamp formats are available for purchase. As an added bonus, if you purchase the CCNP Routing & Switching 10-Day Bootcamp, you will receive a complimentary 1-Year All Access Pass!
Visit INE's website for course dates/locations. Be sure to reserve your seat today, and let one of our Training Advisors know if you require additional assistance. We look forward to seeing you at one of our upcoming CCNP Routing & Switching 10-Day Bootcamps!
Week 1 Topics Include:
- IP Routing Overview
- EIGRP Protocol Overview
- EIGRP DUAL Calculation
- EIGRP Authentication & Summarization
- Advanced EIGRP Features
- EIGRP Troubleshooting
- OSPF Protocol Overview
- OSPF SPF Calculation
- OSPF Media Dependencies
- OSPF Areas & LSA Types
- OSPF Single and Multiple Area
- OSPF Authentication and Summarization
- Advanced OSPF Features
- OSPF Troubleshooting
- BGP Protocol Overview
- BGP Attributes & Bestpath Selection
- BGP Peering & NLRI Advertisements
- BGP Route Reflectors & Confederations
- BGP Authentication and Summarization
- BGP Troubleshooting
- Route Filtering &Traffic Engineering
- Running Multiple Routing Protocols
- Understanding Distribute-Lists, Prefix-Lists & Route-Maps
- One-Point Route Redistribution
- Multi-Point Route Redistribution
- Fixing Routing Loops
- Route Redistribution Troubleshooting
- Policy-Based Routing & Path Control
- IPv6 Overview
Week 2 Topics Include:
- Enterprise Campus Network Architecture
- Layer 2 Switching vs. Layer 3 Routing
- VLAN Design
- Private VLAN
- DTP & Trunking
- VTP Overview & VLAN Pruning
- VLAN Troubleshooting
- STP Protocol Overview
- Rapid STP & Multiple STP
- STP Advanced Features & Security
- STP Troubleshooting
- Layer 2 & Layer 3 EtherChannel
- EtherChannel Troubleshooting
- Inter-VLAN Routing
- DHCP Protocol Overview
- Multilayer Switching Overview
- High Availability with NSF & SSO
- Layer 3 Redundancy Protocols – HSRP, VRRP, GLBP
- First Hop Redundancy Troubleshooting
- Layer 2 Security Features (802.1x, VACL, Port Security)
- DHCP Snooping, Dynamic ARP Inspection & Source Guard
- Layer 2 Security Troubleshooting
- Layer 2 Voice & Video Support
- Wireless Design Overview
- Wireless Standards & Protocols
- WLC Deployments (Local & HREAP)
Between now and the end of the week we will be releasing our January to June 2013 schedule. You will see a lot of new classes/bootcamps added covering a wide range of topics. These include CCNA Data Center, CCNP Data Center, CCNP Wireless, CCNA Service Provider, CCNP Service Provider, Nexus 1000v & Open vSwitch, UCS & OpenStack, Nexus Live Online Bootcamps, Nexus Live Onsite Bootcamps, etc. You will also notice we are adding new 2 day online courses covering a wide range of topics (ISE, WSE, IOS XR, IOS XE, OpenFlow, etc).
The biggest change that you will notice for 2013 is that for ALL of our new products we will offer hands-on labs and equipment rentals. We've made a big push for new hardware in 2012 and we'll be making an even bigger push for 2013. During the first week of January you will see the new CCNP and CCIE Security racks along with the new CCIE Data Center racks coming online. Additionally our new CCNP Security course will have hands-on labs available around the same time frame.
In 2013 we will be making all of our CCNA courses available free of charge like how our CCNA and CCNA Voice courses are now. Not only will they be free to stream online, we will offer hands-on labs and equipment access for all tracks (CCNA Service Provider, CCNA Data Center tracks, etc). Some of the equipment will be offered free of charge for AAP members and some equipment even free of charge to the general public. The key to learning at this level isn't to be bored to death with some "professional presenter" going over hours and hours of PowerPoint slides or some low budget video production with a "professional presenter" dancing around the screen. You need to be engaged by watching a real instructor cover the topics hands-on while you also following along on the equipment. Lastly in regards to the CCNA, you will see the current courses redone to allow for this new format.
For the workbooks will be retiring the workbook volume structure (Vol 1, Vol 2, etc) that we first introduced years ago and is now copied by nearly every vendor. We will be moving to a new format that is a single solution laid out in a structured manner as opposed to a portfolio of products. This new format allows for quicker updates and additions to the products along with many other benefits. The new CCIE Security and CCIE Data Center products will be the first to be offered in our new format.
Lastly I will be making a separate post later this month in regarding a new series of online classes that I personally will be doing next year.